Copyright and Open Access — APEX/JJAP


1. Who owns copyright for APEX/JJAP articles?

Copyright for articles published in Applied Physics Express (APEX) or Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP), except Open Select articles, is transferred to the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) when the article is accepted for publication in the journal in any form. JSAP shall have the right to publish the article in any medium or by any means. Reproduction and/or reuse of those articles, including posting on any repository and uploading on any server that is open to the public, is not allowed without the prior permission of the JSAP.

Many authors in today's publishing environment, on the other hand, may want to make their research freely available to all reader communities. To help authors gain maximum exposure for their novel, important, timely research articles, the JSAP offers an open access (OA) option for articles published in APEX and JJAP. This OA program is called Open Select. Anyone (authors, institutions, funding agencies, etc.) can, by paying a one-time extra fee, make the article freely available to others on the journal website without extra cost or need of a subscription.

All Open Select articles as well as other OA articles (e.g., JJAP Conference Proceedings articles) are published under the Creative Commons CC-BY license. This license allows authors to retain ownership of the copyright for their work while granting all users permission to share and adapt an author's work, even for commercial use, as long as the author is properly attributed.

2. What is open access?

Two models of open access

Open access (OA) refers to making the content of research articles available to all interested readers without charge and giving the permission of the copyright owner to copy, redistribute or reuse content. It expands the availability of articles to anyone with an Internet connection and an interest in a specific topic. There are two typical OA publishing models: Gold OA and Green OA.

Gold OA:

This is a model in which the final published version (or version of record, VOR) of an article is made freely available upon payment of the article processing charge (APC) by the author, his/her funding agency or a third party. Copyright can either be licensed or assigned in the standard manner, but the publisher makes the content free to be viewed and reused (subject to some restrictions defined by the publisher) immediately after publication.

Green OA:

Green open access refers to the “self-archiving” of the content of a published article in a repository that is publicly and freely accessible, usually after a delay (embargo) period of up to 12 months. The author's peer-reviewed, accepted manuscript (but before any copy-editing, coding, etc.), not the final published version (or version of record, VOR), can be posted onto the repository. Copyright is generally assigned to the publisher and the author is given the right to post onto a repository within the restrictions stated above.

3. What is the benefit and requirement of open access?

Major benefit of OA articles

Open access enhances the visibility of articles, increases accessibility for readers, and helps the public to reuse the article. Open access (Gold OA) includes the following major benefits.

  • OA articles are freely and permanently available online immediately upon publication, resulting in broader distribution, and enhanced visibility, accessibility, and sustainability.
  • The final published version of the article can be redistributed, reused and posted onto any repository immediately after publication.
  • Authors usually retain the copyright to their work.
  • Authors can easily abide by the OA mandates of their institution, funder, or society as OA rights of users are usually protected under a Creative Commons license.

4. Are APEX and JJAP Open Access journals?

Hybrid OA journal

APEX and JJAP are hybrid OA journals, that is, subscription-based journals that offer an OA option. Authors may choose to make their APEX/JJAP articles freely available to all interested readers by using the Open Select option.

OA articles in APEX/JJAP

The following articles are classified as Gold OA in APEX/JJAP.

  • Open Select articles in APEX/JJAP
  • All articles in JJAP Conference Proceedings

Open Select option for APEX/JJAP

JSAP offers the OA option for articles published in APEX and JJAP. This OA program is called Open Select. Anyone (authors, institutions, funding agencies, etc.) can, by paying a one-time extra fee (covering APC), make the article freely available to others on the journal website without extra cost or need of a subscription.

All open access articles, including Open Select articles and all articles in JJAP Conference Proceedings, are published under the Creative Commons CC-BY license. The copyright of the Open Select articles, to which the Creative Commons CC-BY license has been applied, shall belong to the authors. This policy may be retroactively applied to Open Select articles already existing before July 10, 2015, with the authors' agreement.

For Open Select articles published prior to July 10, 2015, where the author has not agreed to the CC-BY license being applied retroactively to the article, the copyright still belongs to the JSAP. Reproducing and/or reusing those articles, including uploading on any server that is open to the public, is not allowed without the prior permission of the JSAP.

The Open Select fee is an additional charge levied along with the regular page charge. For more information, please visit our web site. It is highly recommended that you send the application form at the time of submission if you want your article to be published as an Open Select article at the time of publication. The application form can be downloaded at our web site.

5. What is a CC-BY License?

About Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that provides free and easy-to-use copyright licenses giving the public the right to share, use, and even build upon an author's creative work. The Creative Commons also protects all the users of an author's work, so they need not worry about copyright infringement as long as they abide by the specified conditions. Licensing OA articles under a Creative Commons license has evolved as the standard for OA publishing. Among several different sets of licenses, one of the most liberal Creative Commons licenses for publishing scientific articles is the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license.

OA articles in APEX/JJAP are published under CC-BY license

The CC-BY license allows authors to retain ownership of the copyright for their work while granting all users permission to share and adapt their work, even for commercial use, as long as the authors are properly attributed. Authors are recommended to visit the Creative Commons web page to understand the terms of the CC-BY license, which nonexclusively grants all potential users rights to copy, display, redistribute, remix, transform, and build upon the material without obtaining explicit permission from the author.

The CC-BY license is the only Creative Commons license applied by JSAP at this time. When the article is published with a CC-BY license, the following logo will be displayed on the first page of the article.

ccby

6. Self-archiving of articles published in APEX/JJAP journals

For all APEX/JJAP articles other than OA articles (Open Select articles and JJAP Conference Proceedings articles), the Green OA model is applied. Self-archiving of the articles published in APEX and JJAP through an institutional repository will be granted when the following conditions are satisfied. (Refer to our web site.)

  • The article is published after a lapse (embargo period) of more than twelve months from the time of online publication.
  • The final manuscript prepared by the author(s) must be used.
  • Information on the article (e.g., journal title, volume, issue number, article ID) must be disclosed.
  • A DOI of the corresponding article in the online journal must be provided.
  • It must be stated that JSAP holds the copyright to the article if such is the case.

Some institutions and funding bodies may request the authors to make their research result publicly and freely accessible for all readers. The author can abide by such mandates by self-archiving their works.

7. Other Free-Access services provided by APEX/JJAP

In order to make recent, important research results easily accessible for all readers, free-access services are currently provided for selected articles published in APEX and JJAP. Since this service is different from open access, the copyright is retained by JSAP and the reuse of the article is not allowed without prior permission from JSAP. This service is expected to increase the visibility and accessibility of new results. All readers can access the articles as listed below free of charge in a limited time.

  • Invited Review, Comprehensive Review, and Special Review articles in JJAP
  • All articles published in STAP (Selected Topics in Applied Physics) in JJAP
  • Special Issue articles in JJAP (limited time): Special Issue articles are made free-access in a limited time (within one year) after the publication.
  • Spotlight articles in JJAP/APEX (limited time): Articles selected as Spotlights are made free-access in a limited time (until the end of a year next to the year of publication).

8. Summary

What the author should do when submitting a manuscript to APEX/JJAP

At the time of submission of a manuscript for publication in APEX/JJAP, the author must choose either one of the following two routes in terms of copyright and open access handling:

  1. To make the article fully open to the public while the author retains ownership of the copyright (Gold OA), choose the Open Select option by using the application form for Open Select. The article is made free to be read and reused immediately upon publication under a CC-BY license.
  2. To ensure the protection of the article copyright by JSAP, transfer the copyright to JSAP by using the Copyright Transfer Agreement form. When this is selected, the author can post the accepted version of the manuscript into an institutional or subject repository after a 12 month embargo (Green OA).

As for JJAP Conference Proceedings, all articles published therein are Gold OA.

Terminology guide

Article processing charge (APC)
The cost required for the production and maintenance of research articles under a fully open access model is covered by the article processing charge (APC). The APC is collected from the author by the publisher when the article is accepted for publication.
Accepted manuscript
The author's original manuscript of an article after revisions made during the reviewing process but before any editing processes for printing by the publisher. In most cases, this is the version that is allowed to be used in self-archiving.
Copyright transfer
In many subscription-based journals, the authors must transfer the copyright to the publisher when the article is accepted for publication. The publisher has the right to publish the article in any form or by any means. Reproducing and reusing the author's articles may be allowed only with prior permission of the publisher.
Creative Commons
Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization that provides several copyright licenses free of charge to the public. The licenses grant users the right to share, use, or adapt the author's work, while the copyright is retained by the author.
CC-BY license
This is the abbreviation for the Creative Commons Attribution license, the most commonly used Creative Commons license for open access publishing. With this license, the authors are allowed to retain the copyright of their work while all users are granted permission to share, use, and adapt the work, even for commercial use, as long as the authors' original work is properly attributed.
Embargo period
The embargo period is a delay period defined by the publisher, typically 6–12 months, before an article published in a journal can be made freely available to the public. Self-archiving is prohibited during this period, except for open access articles.
Final published version
This is the copy-edited version of an article published by the publisher. For fully open access articles, this version is allowed to be shared and reused immediately after its publication. The “version of record” is also used in the same sense.
Hybrid OA journal
This refers to a journal that publishes not only traditional subscription-based articles but also open access articles upon payment of an extra publication fee.
Open access (OA)
Open access (OA) is a way to make the contents of scientific articles available online to all interested readers without placing any financial or copyright barriers between the readers and the article. There are two models adopted in practice: Gold open access and Green open access.
Gold open access
This is an open access model in which the final published version of an article is made freely available immediately after its publication, upon payment of the article processing charge (APC) by the author.
Green open access
Green open access refers to the “self-archiving” of an article in a publicly and freely accessible repository, usually after a delay (embargo) period defined by the publisher. The author's accepted manuscript, not the final published version, can be posted onto the repository.
Open Select
This is an open access program provided for articles published in APEX and JJAP journals. The authors can make their article freely available to all interested readers upon payment of an extra one-time fee covering the APC.
Repository
This usually refers to a storage for an online archive of academic articles, built by a particular institution or for a subject area.
Self-archiving
This refers to depositing a copy of the author's article into the author's own institutional repository or an open archive in a particular subject area.